Flake. How can a sick person be helped?

odos priežiūra, psoriazė -

Flake. How can a sick person be helped?

Psoriasis , or psoriasis, is a long-term, chronic skin disease reflecting a disorder of the immune system, which manifests itself in various symptoms. It is associated with the accelerated growth of skin cells, which causes characteristic skin lesions - red spots covered with gray scales. These spots usually appear on the knee or elbow joints, scalp, back and abdomen. Psoriasis is caused by both genetic and environmental factors and can affect people of all ages.

The activity of the immune system is important in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. T-lymphocytes, part of the immune system, become activated for unknown reasons and start attacking healthy skin cells. This triggers an inflammatory response that causes skin cells to divide and grow much faster than normal, leading to plaque formation.

Psoriasis can have not only physical but also psychological effects, including depression and low self-esteem. Decreased quality of life and social isolation are also common consequences of psoriasis. This disease can be treated in various ways, depending on its severity and type. These include topical agents (for example, corticosteroid creams, vitamin D analogs), light therapy (for example, ultraviolet B radiation), systemic medications (immunosuppressants, methotrexate, cyclosporine), and biologics that are used to treat more severe forms of psoriasis. It is important to emphasize that psoriasis is not only a skin disease - it can also be associated with joint damage called psoriatic arthritis and other health problems such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

Types of scales

Psoriasis, or psoriasis, is a chronic, often periodically worsening skin disease that manifests itself in various clinical forms that differ in appearance, locations, and symptoms.

Plaque psoriasis. This is the most common form of psoriasis, accounting for about 80-90% of all cases. A characteristic feature is thick, red patches of skin covered with gray scales. Most often, these flakes appear on the knee and elbow joints, scalp, and can also appear on the torso and back. Symptoms of this form may include itching and cracking of the skin.

Guttate psoriasis. This form usually occurs in childhood or adolescence, and can be caused by an infection, such as strep throat. Small, drop-shaped, red or pink rashes are characteristic, usually appearing on a slightly different skin type than plaque psoriasis.

Inverse psoriasis. This form appears as areas of red skin in the armpits, near the chest, lower back or around the genitals. Psoriasis inverse is more prone to irritation from friction and sweating.

Pustular psoriasis. It is a rarer form of psoriasis characterized by purulent, inflamed skin lesions. Pustular psoriasis can be localized (for example, only on the hands or feet) or generalized, where the pus appears all over the body.

Erythrodermic psoriasis. This is a very severe, rare and life-threatening form of psoriasis. It covers large areas of the skin, causes severe redness of the skin and a burning sensation. Erythrodermic psoriasis can cause thermoregulation disorders and be life-threatening.

Each type of psoriasis requires an individual treatment and management plan. Treatment may include topical agents, light therapy, systemic medications, biologics, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes, stress management, and regular physical examinations. It is important to note that psoriasis, regardless of its form, can have a significant impact on the patient's quality of life, so psychological support and social support are important aspects of disease management.

What are the causes of psoriasis?

Psoriasis, medically known as psoriasis , is a complex chronic skin disease with complex causes and factors involving both genetic and environmental factors.

  1. Genetics play an important role in the development of psoriasis. Studies have shown that people with a family history of psoriasis are at a higher risk of developing the disease. Scientists have identified several genes that may increase the risk of psoriasis, but no single gene directly causes the disease.
  2. Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease in which the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy body cells. Of particular importance are T-lymphocytes, which when activated stimulate inflammatory processes in skin cells, accelerating their growth and causing characteristic symptoms of psoriasis.
  3. Inflammation in psoriasis is associated with an increase in the activity of certain substances in the body that help regulate inflammation. These substances, such as interleukins and certain factors that are important in inflammatory reactions, stimulate the inflammatory process and accelerate the growth of skin cells.
  4. Various external factors can cause the appearance or exacerbation of psoriasis in individuals with a genetic predisposition. That includes:
  • Infections: especially streptococcal infections, which can cause guttate psoriasis.
  • Taking certain medications: Some medications, including lithium, beta blockers, and antimalarials, can cause psoriasis flare-ups.
  • Mechanical damage to the skin: called the Koebner Phenomenon, when damage to the skin causes the appearance of new scaly lesions in the affected area.
  • Psychological stress: This can cause or aggravate the symptoms of the disease.
  • Climatic factors: Cold, dry weather often worsens symptoms, while warm, humid weather can relieve them.
  1. Smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are associated with a higher risk of psoriasis and can worsen the course of the disease.

Understanding the causes and triggers of psoriasis is important for understanding the disease and developing effective treatment methods.


Psoriasis, or psoriasis , is a chronic skin disease characterized by various symptoms that may vary depending on the form and severity of the disease. Symptoms can range from mild to very severe, affecting not only the skin but also the patient's quality of life.

  • Skin lesions. The main symptom of psoriasis is red, inflamed patches of skin covered with gray scales. These scales can appear anywhere on the body, but most commonly appear on the knee and elbow joints, scalp, back and abdomen.
  • Itching and pain. A common symptom of psoriasis is itching, which can sometimes be very severe. Pain may also occur, especially if the skin scales are cracked or inflamed.
  • Flaking skin. Psoriasis can cause intense peeling of the skin, which can be both an aesthetic and hygienic problem.
  • Skin cracks. Dry, thick skin scales can crack and bleed, especially when the skin is very dry or when the patient tries to scrub away the scales.
  • Nail changes. Many people with psoriasis experience nail changes, including nail thickening, curling, changes in the nail bed, and separation of the nail from the nail bed.
  • Psoriatic arthritis. Approximately 30% of people with psoriasis develop psoriatic arthritis, which is manifested by joint pain and swelling.
  • Emotional and psychological impact. Because of its appearance and unclear etiology, psoriasis can cause embarrassment, self-esteem issues, and depression.

The severity of symptoms and the location of psoriasis can vary, and not all patients experience all of the symptoms listed. Psoriasis symptoms may flare up and subside periodically. Although psoriasis is incurable, there are many treatments available to help control symptoms and improve quality of life.

How to help a person with psoriasis?

Helping people with psoriasis is not only about applying treatment strategies, but also about providing emotional and psychological support. Psoriasis is a chronic , often relapsing disease whose management involves an integrated approach, incorporating both medical and lifestyle modification aspects.

  1. Medical treatment: Treatment of psoriasis depends on the severity and type of the disease. That includes:
  • Topical preparations: Steroid ointments, resin products, vitamin D analogs, and other topical therapies can be used to treat mild to moderate psoriasis.
  • Light therapy: Ultraviolet light therapy (UVB) may be effective in some patients.
  • Systemic drugs: such as methotrexate, cyclosporine and retinoids for more severe cases.
  • Biologics: These modern drugs, such as TNF inhibitors, IL-12/23, and IL-17 inhibitors, are indicated for severe to moderate psoriasis, especially if it has not responded to other treatments.
  1. Lifestyle changes: A healthy diet, regular physical activity, and weight management can help reduce inflammation and improve overall health.
  2. Psychological support: Psoriasis can have a profound effect on emotional well-being. Psychological counseling, therapy groups, or support groups can help you deal with stress, depression, and self-esteem issues.
  3. Education and awareness: Understanding the disease, its causes, treatments and possible complications is important for sufferers and their families. This helps to better manage the disease and reduces fears and misconceptions.
  4. Skin care: Regular moisturizing of the skin, avoidance of irritants, gentle cleansing of the skin are important aspects of skin care.
  5. Avoiding contact with triggers: Some factors, such as certain foods, alcohol, stress, can cause or worsen symptoms. Identifying and avoiding these triggers can help reduce flare-ups.
  6. Social support: Support from family, friends and colleagues is important for emotional well-being. Increasing public understanding and awareness also helps reduce the stigma associated with the disease.
  7. Regular health check-ups: Since psoriasis can be associated with other health problems such as psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, regular health check-ups are important.

These aspects are important to effectively help people with psoriasis , in order not only to control the physical part of the disease, but also to ensure emotional and psychological well-being.

Information sources:

  1. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI): Overview of psoriasis and its different forms​​.
  2. Mayo Clinic: Psoriasis - Symptoms and Causes​​​​
  3. StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf: Characteristics and Effects of Psoriasis​​.
  4. Cleveland Clinic: Psoriasis - Overview, Symptoms, Causes, Types and Treatment​​​​
  5. American Academy of Dermatology: Guidelines for the management and treatment of psoriasis

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