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What is acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by pimples, redness and inflammation of the skin. It is usually associated with sebaceous gland activity and blockage of hair follicles.
Acne usually occurs during adolescence due to hormonal changes that activate the production of sebaceous glands, but it can also occur in adults.

Causes of acne

Acne can occur when too much oil accumulates in the skin's glands (sebaceous glands), which clogs the pores. This is especially common during adolescence, when due to hormonal changes, the sebaceous glands secrete more oil, and the skin cells are not always able to remove it. Also, acne can occur due to the activity of bacteria (propionibacterium acnes), which can cause inflammation.
Hormonal changes have a major impact on acne breakouts. This is related to the increased amount of sex hormones (androgens) in the body, which stimulate the production of sebum. When androgens increase in women due to ovulation or hormonal disorders, this can also cause acne breakouts.
Using the wrong cosmetics or skin products can clog pores and activate sebaceous glands. For example, people with oily or sensitive skin should avoid too much oily creams and powders, as this worsens the condition of the skin.
It is important to choose cosmetics that do not clog pores, do not cause sensitivity and allergies.


Acne symptoms can vary depending on the type and severity of acne. Some of the most common symptoms of acne include:

  1. Inflammations on the surface of the skin: These are red, swollen and sometimes painful pimples, often called papules. If the pimple has a yellow head, it is called pustular acne.
  2. Clogged pores: These are small white or black dots-pores, sometimes called comedones.
  3. Cystic acne: This is the most severe form of acne, where large and painful cysts appear on the surface of the skin, which can remain on the skin for a long time and often even leave scars.
  4. Red spots or scars: When acne heals, it can leave behind red spots or scars that can remain on the skin for a long time.

In addition, for some people, acne can cause itching or burning, pain.


A dermatologist diagnoses acne by examining the skin. He may ask about the history of acne, such as when it appeared and what symptoms the patient is experiencing. In some cases, a skin sample may be taken and a more detailed examination is performed to see if the acne is related to other skin conditions, such as rosacea or dermatitis.
It is important to see a dermatologist as soon as possible if you notice large, painful pimples that do not go away for a long time. Your doctor will help determine the cause of your acne and recommend a treatment plan that may include medications, laser treatments, special skin care products, and more.

Acne treatment

Acne treatments can vary depending on the type, severity, and cause of acne.
Possible treatments:

  1. Regular skin care: Proper skin care is essential to remove excess sebum, dirt and makeup. It is recommended to use mild skin cleansers and oil-absorbing agents such as toners to maintain skin hydration.
  2. Antibiotics: Antibiotics or other medications can help control the bacteria that cause acne. Your dermatologist may prescribe prescription or over-the-counter medications.
  3. Retinoids: Retinoids are a vitamin A complex that helps keep pores clear and reduce inflammation. Retinoids can only be prescribed by a dermatologist.
  4. Laser therapy: Laser therapy can help reduce inflammation and acne breakouts. However, this method of treatment is usually used for more severe cases.
  5. Changing your diet: Some research suggests that diet can affect acne breakouts. It is necessary to try to eat more fruits, vegetables and grains, avoid fast food and processed products.

Acne can take time to heal, so it's important to be patient and stick to your treatment plan.


When the first symptoms appear, various measures can positively affect the condition of the skin. However, it is necessary to find out the causes of acne and take action accordingly, because the disease tends to progress.

What helps reduce acne breakouts?

  • Avoid tanning
  • Use mild products, and in case of acne breakouts, use an anti-acne cream
  • Follow a healthy diet
  • Avoid alcohol and nicotine
  • Do not touch or press blackheads and pimples
  • Avoid stress

Who else can help?

Certain foods can affect acne breakouts, so it's important to watch your diet and try to eat foods that can help control acne.
It is recommended to avoid fatty, spicy and processed foods as they can cause inflammation and increase the risk of acne. It's also important to try to drink plenty of water to keep your skin hydrated. However, it's important to note that foods can have different effects on different people, so it's best to consult a doctor or dietitian for a proper nutritional plan.

Prepared from online sources.

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