atopinis dermatitas, dermatitas, egzema, kontaktinis dermatitas, seborėjinis dermatitas -


What is dermatitis?

Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that causes redness, swelling, itching, sometimes blisters or even sores. It is a general term that covers a variety of skin problems related to inflammation, allergy or infection.

Dermatitis can occur at any age and in anyone, but certain types of dermatitis are more common in certain age groups or have different risk factors. Several types of dermatitis and their prevalence features:

  1. Atopic dermatitis (eczema): Most common in childhood, especially in the first year of life, and may persist or recur in adulthood. A genetic predisposition may increase the risk of atopic dermatitis.
  2. Contact dermatitis: It can happen to anyone at any age, but it is most often caused by direct contact with irritants or allergens, such as household chemicals, plants, cosmetics, or metals (such as nickel). People who work in certain areas where there is constant skin contact with irritating substances are more prone to contact dermatitis .
  3. Seborrheic dermatitis: Usually occurs in adults, more commonly in men, and may be related to hormones, stress, genetics, or a fungal infection. There is no clear reason why some people develop this type of dermatitis and others do not.

Dermatitis can occur on any part of the skin , but some types of dermatitis are more common in certain areas of the skin. Atopic dermatitis usually affects the face, hands, feet and knees. Contact dermatitis occurs on the part of the skin that has come into contact with an irritating substance or allergen. Seborrheic dermatitis usually occurs on the scalp, face, chest and back.

Causes of the disease

The causes of dermatitis can vary depending on the type of dermatitis, but here are some factors that can cause or contribute to dermatitis:

  1. Genetics: Some types of dermatitis, such as atopic dermatitis , may be linked to genetic factors. If there are cases of atopic dermatitis in the family, the risk of developing this disease increases.
  2. Allergens: Contact dermatitis can be caused by an allergic reaction to certain allergens, such as plants, animals, cosmetics, metals or other substances.
  3. Irritants: Contact dermatitis can also be associated with skin contact with irritants such as chemicals, soaps.
  4. Sebaceous gland activity: Seborrheic dermatitis can be caused by overactive sebaceous glands, which causes the skin to become red, itchy, and scaly.
  5. Fungal infections: Some forms of dermatitis, such as seborrheic dermatitis, may be caused by a fungal infection.
  6. Immune system: In the case of atopic dermatitis, the immune system may be impaired, reacting to allergens or irritants too strongly and causing an inflammatory reaction in the skin.
  7. Hormones: Hormonal changes can affect the onset of seborrheic dermatitis.
  8. Environment: Environmental factors such as humidity, heat, cold or sunlight can affect the onset of dermatitis or the severity of symptoms.

Since the causes of dermatitis can be varied , it is important to consult a dermatologist if you suspect that you have dermatitis. The doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and provide an individual treatment plan, taking into account the causes and symptoms of your dermatitis.

Diagnosis of dermatitis, symptoms

Diagnosing dermatitis usually begins with a consultation with a dermatologist, during which he will listen to the patient's complaints, examine the skin in detail, and ask questions about symptoms, lifestyle, environment, and family history. Sometimes additional tests, such as skin biopsies or allergy tests, may be needed to confirm the diagnosis or to rule out other skin conditions.

The main symptoms of dermatitis depend on its type, but the most common ones are:

  1. The skin is red, swollen.
  2. Itching of the skin, sometimes very severe.
  3. Dry, rough skin, flaking.
  4. Cracks in the skin, blisters (sometimes they burst and ooze fluid).
  5. Wounds or sores caused by constant scratching of the skin or infection.


The course of dermatitis can vary depending on its type, causes and treatment.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema)

The course is usually chronic and variable. Symptoms can come and go, and frequent symptoms are often called flare-ups. During the period of exacerbation, the symptoms can be very severe, and sometimes the dermatitis can be almost imperceptible. In most children, atopic dermatitis gets better with age, but in some people it can last a lifetime. Early treatment and regular skin care can help manage symptoms and prevent flare-ups.

Contact dermatitis

The course is usually acute, occurring after contact with allergens or irritants . Symptoms can appear within hours to several days of exposure and usually resolve within 2-4 weeks if the trigger is removed. Successful treatment and avoidance of irritants can help prevent recurrence of symptoms.

Seborrheic dermatitis

The course can also be chronic and variable, with exacerbations and almost imperceptible. Seborrheic dermatitis can flare up during colder months, when the humidity is lower, or during periods of stress. It is important to properly manage the sebaceous glands and apply consistent treatment and skin care to reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

What helps with dermatitis?

Skin hydration

Regular skin hydration is an important component of dermatitis prevention and treatment . Use an unscented, dye-free moisturizer or lotion at least once a day, or more if needed. Avoid hot baths and showers.


Various medications may be used for treatment, such as topical corticosteroids (anti-inflammatory ointments), calcineurin inhibitors, antihistamines (reduces itching and allergic reactions), and, rarely, systemic corticosteroids. Exact medications and their dosage depend on the type and severity of dermatitis.

Avoidance of allergens and irritants

Try to avoid allergens and irritants that you have identified as causing dermatitis. This may mean changing cosmetics, household items or clothing.

Treatment for infection

If the dermatitis is caused by a bacterial or fungal infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics or other medications.


Some cases of dermatitis may benefit from phototherapy, which reduces inflammation and improves the condition of the skin.


In severe cases, immunosuppressants can be used to suppress the immune system and reduce the inflammatory response. These drugs are usually only prescribed when other treatments have failed.

Prepared from online sources.

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